Objective: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentation of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a Turkish population. Methods: A face-to-face, population-based epidemiologic survey was conducted. Multistep, stratified, cluster, and systematic samplings were used. A total of 3,234 adults were interviewed. Results: Of the 3,234 participants, 103 (3.19%) experienced RLS. This prevalence rate is lower than those of other epidemiologic studies conducted among European and North American populations. RLS was found to be more common among women, cigarette smokers, and individuals residing in high altitudes. The self-reported mental and general health status of patients was worse than in the control subjects. The prevalence of RLS did not differ by age or body mass index. Conclusion: The discrepancy in RLS prevalence studies ( including the authors') suggests that prevalence varies among different races, thus supporting a genetic predisposition.