The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of curcumin on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated (SH), PH, and PH+curcumin; each group contains eight animals. The rats in curcumin-treated groups were given curcumin (in a dose of 100mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 7days, starting 3days prior to hepatectomy operation. At 7days after resection, liver samples were collected. The malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated 2-deoxyuridine, 5-triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, and apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at 7days after hepatectomy. As a result, curcumin significantly increased MI and PI and significantly decreased AI in PH rats. Additionally, curcumin remarkably inhibited MDA elevation, restored impaired antioxidant SOD activity and GSH level and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion. These results suggested that curcumin treatment had a beneficial effect on liver regenerative capacity of the remnant liver tissue after hepatectomy, probably due to its antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and proliferative properties.