JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, vol.33, pp.0-31, 2006 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disease resulting from abnormal proliferation of histiocytes in tissues and organs. The incidence of HLH is 1:50 000–300 000. Cutaneous eruptions have been reported in 6–65% of the cases. It's important to differentiate the eruptions from other systemic diseases. We present an infant with prominent skin manifestations of HLH. On the 11th day of life, she was admitted to our hospital with complaint of a generalized rash that had started the previous day. The eruptions consisted of irregularly shaped maculopapular erythematous rash and purpura. Bone marrow aspiration on the 25th day of life revealed hemophagocytosis with increased macrophages and histiocytes, consistent with HLH. Treatment was started with dexamethasone followed by induction chemotherapy with etoposide. All skin manifestations resolved in a few days. Although the clinical features are nonspecific, HLH should be kept in mind as an accompanying disease in neonates presenting with skin eruptions.