PURPOSE:Burnout is defined as a three-dimensional syndrome-emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and reduced personal accomplishment (PA)-caused by chronic occupational stress. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout among oncologists in Eastern Europe and to identify the contributing factors.METHODS:The study was conducted as an online survey between October 2017 and March 2018. Oncologists (including medical, radiation, clinical, and surgical oncologists) from 19 countries were invited to participate. The survey consisted of 30 questions, including the standardized burnout instrument, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and eight demographic questions. Burnout risk was scored according to the scoring manual for health care workers.RESULTS:The study included 637 oncologists. Overall, 28% were at low or intermediate risk and 72% were at high risk for burnout. Forty-four percent of participants were at high risk for EE, 28.7% for DP, and 47.3% for PA. EE risk was associated with female sex. DP risk was highest among clinical and radiation oncologists, whereas PA risk was positively correlated with years of service, percentage of cancer deaths, and availability of the number of oncologists. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, burnout was significantly associated with standardized cancer mortality and fewer years of practice.CONCLUSION:Burnout among oncologists in Eastern Europe is high, and younger oncologists are the most vulnerable group. Preventive measures should be taken to address this issue, which negatively affects optimal care delivery and poses a threat to oncologists' health and well-being.