BACKGROUND: It is thought that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this study, we used transthoracic echocardiography to measure coronary flow reserve (CFR) in 28 women with PCOS and in 26 healthy women. RESULTS: The PCOS and the control groups were similar in terms of age (27.1 +/- 4.5 versus 28.8 +/- 4.4 years) and BMI (26.6 +/- 5.7 versus 24.7 +/- 4.4 kg/m(2)). Fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index were higher in the PCOS group. LH, the LH/FSH ratio, total testosterone, free testosterone and androstenedione were higher in the PCOS group. FSH, estradiol, prolactin, progesterone, cholesterol, triglyceride and high-sensitive C-reactive protein were similar between the two groups, but homocysteine levels were higher in the PCOS group. Baseline diastolic peak f low velocity (DPFV) (25.0 +/- 4.6 versus 23.3 +/- 2.7 cm/s, P > 0.05), hyperaemic DPFV (71.2 +/- 12.8 versus 73.0 +/- 12.9 cm/s, P > 0.05) and CFR (2.8 +/- 0.8 versus 3.2 +/- 0.8 cm/s, P > 0.05) of the left anterior descending coronary artery were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in young women with PCOS and without cardiovascular risk factors, CFR is preserved.