Reconstruction of the maxillofacial bone defects and fractures poses a challenge to the surgeons. Various alternatives and materials have been described for these defects and fractures. Glass ionomer bone cements (GICs) have been used extensively in dentistry but recently they have also been utilized in otolaryngology. We hypothesized that GIC can be an alternative material for maxillofacial reconstruction. However, their biocompatibility is of primary importance because this material will be in direct contact with the tissue for a prolonged tune and might affect it. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the tissue responses to GIG in the maxillofacial area in rabbits. The study was carried out on 16 New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided into study (n: 8) and control (n: 8) groups. Experimental defects and fractures were created in the nasal bone, maxilla and zygoma in both the study and the control group. The experimental fractures and defects were reconstructed by GIG in the study group. However, the rabbits in the control group were left to natural healing process. The inflammatory reaction and fibrosis in the rabbits of both the study and the control group were compared by using descriptive histopathological analysis 180 days after application. The tissue reactions were graded. GIG showed a slight inflammatory and fibrous reaction in the rabbit of the study group. Nevertheless, statistical difference between the groups was not observed in terms of inflammatory reaction and fibrosis (P>0.05). The results of this study indicated that GIG is a well tolerated material in maxillofacial reconstruction.