This study aims at optimizing the arsenic removal performance of a sulfidogenic anaerobic MBR treating acid mine drainage (AMD). The feed sulfate concentration was kept constant at 2,000 mg/L and ethanol concentration was decreased steadily from 1,500 mg COD/L to 500 mg COD/L. Metal concentrations were kept at 75 or 150 mg/L Fe, 25 mg/L Cu, 5 mg/L Zn, 5 mg/L Co, 5 mg/L Mn, 2.5 mg/L Ni and 2.5 mg/L As. High sulfide concentration led to dissolution of orpiment (As2S3) and low As removal efficiency. Later, decrease of sulfide concentration in the bioreactor resulted in increasing As removal efficiency over 99% due to formation of orpiment and co-precipitation of As with amorphous iron precipitates. Flux was increased up to around 10 Li(m(2)h) (LMH). It was concluded that heavy metals in the AMD behaved as a filtration aid and increased the sludge filterability, which was assessed by the regular analyses of supernatant filterability, specific resistance to filtration and capillary suction time. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.