The major objective of this study was to test curcumin as a potential radioprotectant for the ileum goblet cells of the rat. Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Group A was the control group and group B was the single dose radiation group. Group C was the two dose radiation group (4 days interval). The rats in groups D and E were given a daily dose of 100 mg/kg of curcumin for 14 and 18 days, respectively. During the curcumin administration period, the rats in group D were exposed to abdominal area gamma (gamma)-ray dose of 5 Gy on the 10th day and group E was exposed to same dose radiation on the 10th and 14th day. Irradiation and treatment groups were decapitated on the 4th day after exposure to single or two-dose irradiation and ileum tissues were removed for light and electron microscopic investigation. Single or two dose 5 Gy gamma-irradiation caused a marked intestinal mucosal injury in rats on the 4th day. Radiation produced increases in the number of goblet cells. Curcumin appears to have protective effects against radiation-induced damage, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible.