Hallmarks of Exosome

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Dilsiz N.

Future Microbiology, vol.7, no.10, pp.1-18, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Title of Journal : Future Microbiology
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-18


Exosomes are a new horizon in modern therapy, presenting exciting new opportunities for advanced

drug delivery and targeted release. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles with a size range of 30–

100 nm, secreted by all cell types in the human body and carrying a unique collection of DNA fragments,

RNA species, lipids, protein biomarkers, transcription factors and metabolites. miRNAs are one of the

most common RNA species in exosomes, and they play a role in a variety of biological processes including

exocytosis, hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, as well as cellular communication via exosomes. Exosomes

can act as cargo to transport this information from donor cells to near and long-distance target cells,

participating in the reprogramming of recipient cells.

Lay abstract: Exosomes have been found in all of the body fluids, and the content of exosomes’ complex

cargo is easily accessible by biological fluid sampling. The potential utility of exosome-based liquid biopsy

in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer and some other disorders has been highlighted. Exosomes

can be engineered to transport a variety of therapeutic payloads, such as antisense oligonucleotides,

immunological modulators, therapeutic drugs and vaccines, and they can be directed to a specific target.

For the first time, ten different exosome hallmarks have been categorized according to their functional

capabilities in the present review article.