In this study of 26 patients, clinical features diagnosed as urinary tuberculosis in our nephrology and urology clinics between 1993 and 2002 were investigated retrospectively. Fifteen patients (52%) were male, and mean age was 43.5 (18-71). Twenty percent of the patients were asymptomatic. Frequency-dysuria (46%), flank pain (33%), and macroscopic hematuria (12%) were presenting symptoms. Physical examination was not diagnostically helpful in most patients. Hematuria and/or pyuria were detected in 80% of the patients. Eleven patients had positive urine cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (42%), and 7 patients had positive smears (25%). Definitive diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis was established microbiologically in 15 patients (58%) and histopathologically in 11 patients (42%). Tuberculin skin test was positive in 60% of the patients. Eight patients had an abnormal chest roentgenogram. Hydronephrosis (majority bilateral) in 11 patients (42%), contracted bladder in 9 patients (34.6%), and renal calcification in 6 patients (23%) were detected. Two patients also had genital tuberculosis (epididymoorchitis). Although only medical treatment was applied in 13 patients for 9 months, in the rest of the patients medical therapy plus surgical intervention was carried out. End-stage renal failure developed in one patient who died on hemodialysis. Renal functions had decreased moderately in two other patients. In conclusion, the diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis was able to be established after the obstructive complications and functional losses were developed in a fair number of cases. Surgical treatment was carried out in half the patients. Urinary tuberculosis should be taken into consideration because early diagnosis and treatment is very important for the presenting of irreversible sequelae.