Obesity which developes due to multifactorial reasons, was associated recently with human Adenovirus-36 (Ad-36). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Ad-36 antibodies in obese adults and also to investigate the DNA of Ad-36 in their adipose tissue. In this cross-sectional and case-control based study, 49 obese adults, with BMI >= 30 kg/m(2), and 49 non-obese adults, with BMI <= 25 kg/m(2), applied for esthetic purposes and were included in this study as patient and control groups, respectively. Adipose tissue samples, obtained by the lipoaspiration method, were studied by single-step PCR and nested-PCR methods. Simultaneously, the presence of Ad-36 antibodies and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were assessed by serum neutralization assay (SNA) and ELISA, respectively. Serum samples which didn't cause a cytopathic effect at >= 1:8 were accepted as positive. Ad-36 antibody was detected in 6 (12.2%) of 49 patients by SNA and was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Ad-36 DNA was not detected in any of the adipose tissue samples of the patient or control groups. Mean BMI and leptin levels were higher in the Ad-36-positive group, while adiponectin levels were found to be lower in the Ad-36-positive group. Although no statistically significant difference was found in cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the two groups (p > 0.05), lower mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were found in the Ad-36-positive patients. In conclusion, we couldn't detect Ad-36 DNA in adipose tissue; however, we detected significantly higher Ad-36 antibody levels in the obese group compared to the non-obese group, according to the both univariant and multivariant analyses, suggesting that Ad-36 may play a role in obesity. There is a need for new and extended serial, particularly cohort and human-based, studies in order to have a clear understanding of the Ad-36-obesity relationship. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.