OBJECTIVE: The term chronic inflammatory disease (CID) refers to a category of inflammatory diseases that includes Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The incidence of adverse cardiovascular events is greater among patients with CID, though they may not have conventional atherosclerotic risk factors. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the underlying fundamental mechanisms that trigger development of atherosclerotic alterations in arteries, and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is a noninvasive method to determine endothelial dysfunction. Recent studies have shown a relationship between high triglyceride high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and coronary atherosclerosis. Many studies have demonstrated that patients with CID have lower FMD values compared to healthy population, indicating endothelial dysfunction. However TG/HDL ratio and its relationship to FMD in patients with CID has not been investigated. The present study investigated whether TG/HDL ratio in CID patients differs from that of healthy population, and its relationship to FMD in patients with CID.