Toxocara related peritonitis: A case report and review of literature

Arslan F., Baysal N., Aslan A., Simsek B., Vahaboglu H.

PARASITOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, vol.73, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 73
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.parint.2019.101950
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Keywords: Toxocara, Peritonitis, Eosinophils, Toxocariasis, Enteritis, Ascites, EOSINOPHILIC GASTROENTERITIS, CANIS INFECTION, ASCITES, DISEASE


Toxocariasis is a clinical syndrome caused by the larvae of two ascarid nematodes, namely, Toxocara canis and T. cad that live in dogs and cats as definitive hosts. Humans acquire Toxocara infection by accidental consumption of eggs contaminated foods, soil, water or larvae encapsulated in the viscera or meats of various paratenic hosts e.g., chicken. After oral ingestion, the ova hatch and the free larvae penetrate the intestinal wall to migrate to distant tissues throughout the body. Larvae may also infiltrate the intestinal wall and cause enteritis and mass occupying lesions. Here, we present a T. canis related gastroenteritis and peritonitis case successfully treated with albendazole. We reviewed the literature and found seven previously published Toxocara related peritonitis cases. To our knowledge, this is the first review about non-disseminated toxocariasis that restricted to the intestine and presented as eosinophilic ascites due to peritoneal inflammation. The most common abdominal symptoms were abdominal pain and nausea, and the most common findings were eosinophilic infiltrations on endoscopic biopsy specimens and eosinophilia in the peripheric blood samples.