TURKIYAT ARASTIRMALARI DERGISI-JOURNAL OF STUDIES IN TURKOLOGY, ss.59-71, 2016 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)
Even though Ottoman State's efforts of westernization, especially in military fields, goes way back in history, the declaration of Tanzimat Edict (1839) has been accepted as its official beginning. Important steps were taken in the field of education during this period, as in many other fields of Ottoman Turkish society. Especially gaining the girls into the world of education for the first time was realized by the foundation of "Inas (girls)" schools in 1870s. The emergence of the first samples of Turkish novels as a literary style also happened in this period. Murabbiyes/enstitutris (governesses) were given a place in the novels that shed light on social life. By means of this profession which was first imported from Europe and then turned into a way of making a living, European governesses started to appear in the mansions and cottages of the affluent Ottoman Turkish families. Jozefino in Ahmet Midhat Efendi's novel titled Felatun Bey'le Rakim Efendi, Anjel in Huseyin Rahmi's novel Murebbiye, and Courton in Halid Ziya's novel Ask-i Memnu were first the examplary characters that represented governess for children in this period.