This' study attempts to empirically examine the dynamic causal relationships between carbon emissions, energy consumption, income, and foreign trade in the case of Turkey using the time-series data for the period 1960-2005. This research tests the interrelationship between the variables using the bounds testing to cointegration procedure. The bounds test results indicate that there exist two forms of long-run relationships between the variables. In the case of first form of long-run relationship, carbon emissions are determined by energy consumption, income and foreign trade. In the case of second long-run relationship, income is determined by carbon emissions, energy consumption and foreign trade. An augmented form of Granger causality analysis is conducted amongst the variables. The long-run relationship Of CO(2) emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade equation is also checked for the parameter stability. The empirical results suggest that income is the most significant variable in explaining the carbon emissions in Turkey which is followed by energy consumption and foreign trade. Moreover, there exists a stable carbon emissions function. The results also provide important policy recommendations. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.