in: Green and Smart Technologies for Smart Cities, Pradeep Tomar,Gurjit Kaur, Editor, CRC, New York , New-York, pp.293-320, 2019
The concept of smartness found its roots back in the 1990s, but it has grown significantly since 2008. First, the term was invented as a complex technological infrastructure placed in urban areas to promote social, environmental as well as economic well- being. More specifically, in order to allude to information and communication technologies (ICTs) application to the cities’ infrastructure system, the concept of “smart” was firstly utilised in the 1990s by the California Institute of Smart Communities, one of the primary agencies that investigate how a community could be considered smart. A few years later, the Centre on Governance at the University of Ottawa expanded the application of the term to include a governance- focused approach rather than merely emphasising ICTs. Since the “smart” concept is linked to the academic literature, it has swiftly become a phenomenon for the private sector and governments.