A Comparison Study of Growth Factor Expression following Treatment with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Saline Solution, Povidone-Iodine, and Lavender Oil in Wounds Healing

Kutlu A. K. , Cecen D., Gurgen S. G. , Sayin O., Cetin F.

EVIDENCE-BASED COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE, 2013 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1155/2013/361832
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus


This study compared the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), saline solution (SS), povidone-iodine (PI), and lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) through expression of growth factors in a rat model of wound healing. Six experimental groups were established, each containing 8 rats: a healthy group with no incision wounds, an incision-control group, an incision and TENS group, an incision and SS group, an incision and PI group, and an incision and lavender oil group. Experiments continued for 5 days, after which the skin in the excision area was removed. Tissue concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-A were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tissue expressions of EGF, PDGF-A, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 were determined using immunohistochemistry. Wound closure progressed more rapidly in the TENS and lavender oil groups than in the control and other study groups. In particular, PDGF-A expressions in the dermis and EGF expression in the epidermis were significantly intense in the TENS group (p < 0.05). In addition, ELISA levels of growth factors such as PDGF-A and EGF were significantly higher in TENS group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). These immunohistochemical and ELISA results suggest that TENS may improve wound healing through increasing growth factors in the dermis and epidermis more than other topical applications.