The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 9450-MHz microwaves and extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELFMF) on the phagocytic activity of rat macrophages in control rats and those treated with vitamins C and E. In the microwave group, 24 albino Wistar rats were exposed to microwaves (2.65 mW/cm(2), specific absorption rate [SAR]: 1.80 W/kg) for 1 h/day for 21 days. Thirty-two albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups (one control, three experimental) (n = 8). The rats in the first exposure group were only exposed to microwaves for 1 h per day for 21 days. In addition to exposure with microwaves as in the first experimental group, vitamins E and C (150 mg/kg/day) were injected intraperitoneally into the rats in the second and third exposure groups, respectively. In the magnetic field exposure group, 26 albino Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the sham (n = 12) and exposed groups (n = 14). The rats in the experimental group were exposed to ELFMF (50 Hz, 0.75 mT) for 3 h/day for 3 weeks. After completing the exposure period, the rats were sacrificed under ketalar anesthesia. The viability of isolated alveolar macrophages of rats in the microwave and ELF groups was determined and compared to sham groups. The results were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. In the microwave group, the phagocytic activity in the experimental groups was found to be higher than the sham groups. However, with phagocytic activity in rats treated with both microwaves and vitamins, only the vitamin C group was significant (p < 0.05). In the magnetic field group, the phagocytic activity of rats exposed to ELFMF was lower than that of the sham group, but the results were not significant (p > 0.05). Rectal temperatures of microwave-exposed groups were found to be significantly higher compared to the control group (p < 0.05).