Purpose The aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting seizure recurrence in pediatric patients diagnosed with epilepsy. Methods Three hundred patients presenting to the pediatric neurology clinic between 2015 and 2018 and diagnosed with epilepsy and treated with single antiseizure drug were included in the study. Medical histories and clinical and laboratory findings were retrieved retrospectively from the hospital data system. The combined and adjusted effects of risk factors on seizure recurrence were evaluated using multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Results Boys had a higher rate of seizure recurrence than girls. Seizure recurrence was also higher in patients with abnormal neurological examinations at the time of diagnosis compared to those with normal neurological examinations. Seizure recurrence was significantly higher in patients with global growth retardation. Epilepsy patients with abnormal MRI findings also had a higher rate of seizure recurrence than patients with normal neuroimaging findings. In addition, seizure recurrence was significantly higher in epilepsy patients with comorbidities such as cerebral palsy and autism spectrum disorders compared to patients without comorbidities. No significant association was observed between seizure recurrence and the first drug, perinatal asphyxia history, localization of epileptiform discharges on EEG, family history of epilepsy, family history of febrile seizures, history of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit during the perinatal period, or preterm delivery. Conclusion Abnormal neurological examination, abnormal neuroimaging and accompanying comorbidities, and global growth retardation at the time of diagnosis are important factors affecting seizure recurrence in pediatric patients with epilepsy.