Effect of White Noise in Relieving Vaccination Pain in Premature Infants

Kucukoglu S., Aytekin A., Celebioglu A., Celebi A., Caner I., Maden R.

PAIN MANAGEMENT NURSING, vol.17, no.6, pp.392-400, 2016 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.pmn.2016.08.006
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.392-400


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of white noise as a distraction method in relieving procedural pain caused by vaccination for premature infants. This experimental study was performed at a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university hospital in Turkey between July and September 2013. The study population was composed of 75 premature infants (35 in the study group and 40 in the control group) who met the inclusion criteria. Premature infants in the study group were exposed to white noise using MP3 players placed at the head of the infants' open crib for 1 minute before vaccination. The white noise continued until 1 minute after vaccination. Premature infants in the control group were not exposed to white noise. The Premature Infant Information Form, Intervention Follow-up Form, and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) were used to collect study data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate the data. The pain level of the control group (PIPP = 14.35 +/- 2.59) was significantly higher than the pain level of the study group (PIPP = 8.14 +/- 3.14) (p < .05). The authors found that 67.6% of the infants in the study group had moderate pain during vaccination and only 2.9% had severe pain. Most of the infants in the control group (82.5%) had severe pain, whereas 17.5% had moderate pain (p < .05). White noise was found to be effective for this sample; however, there is a dire need for extensive research on white noise and its use with this vulnerable population. (C) 2016 by the American Society for Pain Management Nursing