Objective Population-based studies on the prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) worldwide are rare and the epidemiology of TN in Turkey is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of TN in Turkey. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive epidemiological study in Eregli, Turkey. Participants over the age of 18 were screened using a self-assessment form, and potential patients were identified by a 'neuroscreening team'. Suspected patients were invited for a clinical examination and evaluated by a senior neurologist. Any required imaging was carried out at a university hospital. Results Data were collected from a total of 9605 participants, after the exclusion of 247 individuals who refused to participate. Seven suspected patients were invited to a public health center for clinical evaluation. One patient was diagnosed with SUNCT (Short-lasting, Unilateral, Neuralgiform headache attacks with Conjunctival injection and Tearing) and one patient was diagnosed with post-herpetic neuralgia. A definite diagnosis of TN was confirmed in five participants. The crude prevalence was found to be 52.1/100.000. The mean age of cases was 62.2 +/- 8.3 years and the female/male ratio was 4/1. TN was classified as 'symptomatic' in one patient with multiple sclerosis. The other four cases were diagnosed with classical TN. Right side involvement was identified in three cases (60%), whereas left side involvement was seen in two cases (40%). Discussion This study establishes the prevalence of TN in Turkey for the first time. The prevalence rate is low when compared with other international studies.