Recent studies have suggested that chronic infections such as Helicobacter pylori may be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of thIS study was to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori in patients with CAD. We enrolled 151 patients with CAD (93 men and 58 women, aged 48.1 +/- 17.3 years [mean +/- SD]) and 149 control subjects matched by age and sex (90 men and 59 women, aged 51.4 +/- 13.9 years). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay immunoglobulin (Ig) G test for H. pylori diagnosis was performed on all enrolled subjects (CAD patients and controls). Ninety-one of 151 patients with CAD (60.2%) and 86 of the 149 subjects in the control group (57.7%) were H. pylori positive (P > 0.05). H. pylori infection rates were similar in patients with CAD and control groups. The main conclusion of this study is that H. pylori infection is not a risk factor for developing CAD. Further studies should be undertaken to confirm our results.