AA amyloidosis is a relatively rare disease which complicates chronic inflammatory diseases, chronic infections, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and malignant diseases. Although amyloid deposition may be found in many organs, renal involvement dominates the clinical picture. We reviewed 63 patients with AA amyloidosis who presented to our nephrology department between 1995 and 2000. Prognostic markers, detailed history, physical examination and laboratory tests were evaluated. The causes of AA amyloidosis were as follows: FMF 42 (66.6%), pulmonary tuberculosis 9 (14.2%), chronic osteomyelitis 4 (6.3%), bronchiectasia 4 (6.3%), rheumatoid arthritis 1 (1.5%), juvenile idiopathic arthritis 1 (1.5%), inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm 1 (1.5%), unknown aetiology 1 (1.5%). The diagnosis was made on renal biopsies in 63.4% of the patients, while the remaining 36.6% were diagnosed as a result of rectal biopsies. Sixteen patients died. A low serum albumin, high creatinine and high 24-hour urine albumin excretion were associated with high mortality.