JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, cilt.222, ss.420-427, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)
Industrial wastewater reuse together with zero or near zero liquid discharges have been a growing trend due to the requirement of sustainable water management mandated by water scarcity and tightening discharge regulations. Studies have been conducted on the reclamation of textile industry wastewater using RO processes. However a lot of scientific attention has been drawn upon limiting the amount of concentrate generated from RO processes, which depends on the concentrations of scale forming ions in the concentrate stream. Hence, this study aims at investigating the applicability of an ultra-filtration (UF) membrane integrated pellet reactor to remove scale forming ions, i.e. Ca2+, Mg2+ and Si from the concentrate of a pilot-scale textile industry RO process, for the first time in the literature. The resulting effluent was further tested in a secondary RO process to decrease concentrate volume and increase total water recovery. The pellet reactor operated at an extremely low hydraulic retention time of 0.1 h removed scale forming ions, i.e. Ca2+, Mg2+, with 90-95% efficiency, which improved the secondary RO process performance up to 92-94% overall water recovery, i.e. near zero liquid discharge was reached. Ozonation of the concentrate partially removed COD and color, which further improved the secondary RO filtration performance.