Objective: In this study, auditory brainstem potentials (ABPs) were studied in children with Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) to determine the ABP abnormalities in HSE during childhood. We also wished to determine whether or not to use ABP in early diagnosis of HSE. Method: The study includes 28 children; eight children with acute HSE, nine with nonspecific encephalitis, and 11 healthy age-matched control subjects. The diagnosis of HSE was confirmed by the demonstration of Herpes simplex virus type 1 in CSF by polymerase chain reaction. Recordings of ABPs were performed by using Nihon Kohden Neuropack 2 device. Results: The study includes eight children (four females and four males) with acute HSE, nine children (five males and four females) with nonspecific encephalitis, and 11 healthy age-matched control subjects (six males and five females). Age ranges of the patients and controls were between six months and 12 years. There was not statistically significant difference between the groups for age and gender (p>.05). There were significant differences in the mean latencies of the wave IV on the right ear and in the mean interpeak latencies (IPLs) of the waves III-V on the right and left ears between the nonspecific encephalitis group and the control group (p<.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the HSV and control groups (p>.05). In addition, there was no significant difference between HSV and nonspecific groups (p>.05). Conclusions: Our findings revealed that there were mild ABP abnormalities in children with nonspecific encephalitis, but no ABP abnormality in patients with HSV encephalitis. However, we think that more extensive and detailed studies should be performed to determine whether or not there were ABP abnormalities in childhood HSV encephalitis.