In this study, we aimed to determine the frequencies of catheter exit-site infection (CESI), catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) and catheter colonization (CC); causative microorganisms; and resistance patterns in patients with temporary hemodialysis catheters. From March 1999 to March 2000, 67 hemodialysis patients (38 males, 29 females; median age: 52, range: 17-84) were evaluated. The CDC criteria were used to diagnose CESI, CR-BSI and CC. The tips of catheters were cultured by Maki's method. At the same time, two different blood Cultures, one from peripheral vein and the other through the catheter lumen were drawn. Swab cultures from the catheter exit sites were also performed. The isolation and identification of bacteria were performed by conventional methods and the Susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer method. CESI, CR-BSI and CC were found in, respectively, 20 (29.8%), 16 (23.8%) and 11 (16.4%) patients. The etiologic agents in CR-BSI were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (5), coagulase-negative staphylococci (2), Enterococcus sp. (1), Escherichia coli (1), Acinetobacter sp. (1) and Proteus sp. (1). Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were found in proportions of 45.5% and 63.6% in CESI and CR-BSI+CC. The only risk factor for the development of CR-BSI and CC was intravenous drug use. In our center, the majority of CESI, CR-BSI and CC were due to staphylococci and there was a high rate of methicillin resistance.