In this retrospective study, the investigators examined blood cultures from patients that had been diagnosed with bacteremias over a 3-y period. The study was conduced at Kocatepe University Hospital (Middle Anatolia, Turkey). Blood samples that arrived at the university's microbiology laboratory between 2002 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. These samples were classified as contamination, false positivity, community-acquired bacteremia (CAB), or hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB). Patient age and sex, foci of bacteremia, present comorbidities, predisposing factors, pathogens, and mortality rates were evaluated. A total of 1783 blood cultures that had been drawn from 1441 patients during this 3-y period were examined retrospectively. Of 354 positive isolates, 61 (117.2%) were CABs and 293 (82.8%) were HABs. In HABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (29.7%), and Escherichia coli (10.2%); in CABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were S aureus (29.5%), Brucella spp (26.2%), and E coli (24.6%). Crude mortality rates were determined to be 15.2% for HABs and 12.7% for CABs. This study yielded data on the most common foci of bacteremia, microbiologic factors, and the epidemiology associated with HABs and CABs. It is hoped that these data will enhance empirical antibiotic therapeutic approaches, thereby preventing delays in treatment and decreasing mortality rates associated with bacteremias.