The present study offers a comparative analysis of mathematics questions placed in Turkish and Canadian school textbooks in terms of cognitive process and knowledge dimension as well as the question types. In order to get the required data, eight textbooks were analyzed respectively. Document analysis was conducted to collect the data from these textbooks. In order to compare the differences and similarities between the questions found in these textbooks as well as their levels of cognitive learning, these questions were analyzed and classified according to the types of cognitive processes and knowledge dimensions they address. Mathematics questions existing in Turkish and Canadian textbooks showed a similar tendency in terms of cognitive learning domain. However, compared to the Turkish textbooks, it was found that the questions provided in the Canadian textbooks contained more constructed response questions that required higher-order cognitive abilities. It is recommended that the number of higher order thinking questions should be increased in accordance with international examinations.