Background: A cytologic reading of a Papanicolaou ( pap) smear followed, if the result is positive, by a colposcopic search for abnormal cells is the most common screening method for cervical cancer used worldwide. We aimed to present the correlation of smear and colposcopic findings with 6- to 12-month follow-up results and related factors in women who underwent colposcopy in Turkey. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of women who attended the gynecology department and were referred for colposcopic evaluation in 2011-2012. A total of 232 women between ages 17 and 68 years were included. Colposcopy indications were ASCUS and higher lesions at cervical smear, macroscopic suspicious lesions, post-coital bleeding history with suspicious smear, and repeated cervical inflammation. All patients were recalled for 6- to 12-month follow-ups. Results: The most common colposcopy indication was ASCUS, and the most common biopsy result was inflammation. Nearly half of the patients returned for the control 6-month follow-up, and almost 20% of patients for a 1-year follow up. Conclusions: Colposcopic biopsy is an effective method in indicated patients but is not sufficient in itself if awareness of the subject is not raised in the population. One of the most important aims of cancer screening programs should be enabling patients in developing countries to take responsibility. Patients must be encouraged to apply to the hospital for better disease control.