Background The malignancy potential of the laryngeal lesions are one of the major concerns of the surgeons about choosing the treatment options, forming surgical margins, deciding the follow-up periods. Finding a biomarker to overcome these concerns are ongoing challenges and recently microRNAs (miRNAs) are attributed as possible candidates since they can regulate gene expressions in the human genome. The objective of our study was to investigate their capability as a transformation biomarker for malignant laryngeal lesions. Materials and methods We investigated mature miRNA expressions in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of human laryngeal tissues grouped as benign, premalignant or malignant (n = 10 in each). miRNA profiling was carried out by quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and data were analyzed according to fold regulation. Results Our results demonstrated that 9 miRNAs were upregulated as the lesions become more malignant. Among them Hs_miR-183_5p, Hs_miR-155_5p, and Hs_miR-106b_3p expressions were significantly 4.16 (p = 0.032), 2.72 (p = 0.028) and 3.01 (p = 0.022) fold upregulated respectively in premalignant lesions compared to the benign lesions. Moreover, their expressions were approximately 2.76 fold higher in the malignant group than in the premalignant group compared to the benign group. Besides them, significant 7.57 (p = 0.036), 4.45 (p = 0.045) and 5.98 (p = 0.023) fold upregulations of Hs_miR-21_5p, Hs_miR-218_3p, and Hs_miR-210_3p were noticed in the malignant group but not in the premalignant group when compared to the benign group, respectively. Conclusion MiRNAs might have important value to help the clinicians for their concerns about the malignancy potentials of the laryngeal lesions. Hs_miR-183_5p, Hs_miR-155_5p, and Hs_miR-106b_3p might be followed as transformation marker, whereas Hs_miR-21_5p, Hs_miR-218_3p, and Hs_miR-210_3p might be a biomarker prone to malignancy.