Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection may cause extradigestive manifestations directly or indirectly, by potential mechanisms. HP infection triggers a marked local inflammatory response and a chronic systemic immune response. Some of the mediators that are thought to be possibly involved in the pathogenesis of extradigestive diseases caused by HP infection include IL-1, TNF-alpha, interferon (IFN)-T, leukotriene C4 and platelet - activating factor. Previous epidemiological and serotogical case control studies have revealed that HP infection might have a role in the development of chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, lung cancer and tuberculosis. However HP infection does not appear to have a role in the development of bronchial asthma. Considering the importance and prevalence of respiratory system diseases, it may be time to conduct welt-designed sets of studies to clarify whether there is an association with HP infection and respiratory system diseases, and to answer questions that have been posed regarding the patterns of histology, genotypes of HP, and the effects of eradication therapy. The aim of this review was to analyze the possible association between HP and respiratory disease and provide a critical review of the relevant literature. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.