Myoglobinuric acute renal failure (ARF) is a uremic syndrome caused by traumatic or non-traumatic skeletal muscle breakdown and intracellular elements that are released into the bloodstream. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy could be beneficial in the treatment of myoglobinuric ARF caused by rhabdomyolysis. A total of 32 rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into four groups: control, control+hyperbaric oxygen (control+HBO), ARF, and ARF+hyperbaric oxygen (ARF+HBO). Glycerol (8 ml/kg) was injected into the hind legs of each of the rats in ARF and ARF+HBO groups. 2.5 atmospheric absolute HBO was applied to the rats in the control+HBO and ARF+HBO groups for 90 min on two consecutive days. Plasma urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase and urine creatinine and sodium were examined. Creatinine clearance and fractional sodium excretion could then be calculated. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed in renal tissue. Tissue samples were evaluated by Hematoxylin-eosin, PCNA and TUNEL staining histopathologically. MDA levels were found to be significantly decreased whereas SOD and CAT were twofold higher in the ARF+HBO group compared to the ARF group. Renal function tests were ameliorated by HBO therapy. Semiquantitative evaluation of histopathological findings indicated that necrosis and cast formation was decreased by HBO therapy and TUNEL staining showed that apoptosis was inhibited. PCNA staining showed that HBO therapy did not increase regeneration. Ultimately, we conclude that, in accordance with our hypothesis, HBO could be beneficial in the treatment of myoglobinuric ARF.