Characterization of magnesium doped sol-gel biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration: The effect of Mg ion in protein adsorption

Cerqueira A., Romero-Gavilan F., Garcia-Arnaez I., Martinez-Ramos C., ÖZTURAN S., Izquierdo R., ...More

MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING C-MATERIALS FOR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, vol.125, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 125
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.msec.2021.112114
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts


Magnesium is the fourth most abundant element in the human body with a wide battery of functions in the maintenance of normal cell homeostasis. In the bone, this element incorporates in the hydroxyapatite structure and it takes part in mineral metabolism and regulates osteoclast functions. In this study, sol-gel materials with increasing concentrations of MgCl2 (0.5, 1, and 1.5%) were synthesized and applied onto Ti surfaces as coatings. The materials were first physicochemically characterized. In vitro responses were examined using the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. Human serum protein adsorption was evaluated employing nLC-MS/MS. The incorporation of Mg did not affect the crosslinking of the sol-gel network, and a controlled release of Mg was observed; it was not cytotoxic at any of the tested concentrations. The cytoskeleton arrangement of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the Mg-doped materials changed in comparison with controls; the cells became more elongated, with protruded lamellipodia and increased cell surface. The expression of integrins (ITGA5 and ITGB1) was boosted by Mg-coatings. The ALP activity and expression of TGF-beta, OSX and RUNX2 genes were also increased. In RAW264.7 cells, TNF-alpha secretion was reduced, while TGF-beta and IL-4 expression rose. These changes correlated with the altered protein adsorption patterns. The Mg-doped coatings showed increased adsorption of anti-inflammatory (CLUS, IC1, CFAH, and VTNC), cell adhesion (DSG1, FILA2, and DESP) and tissue regeneration (VTNC and CYTA) proteins. This integrated approach to biomaterial characterization revealed the potential of Mg in bone tissue regeneration.