This study was carried out to determine if Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBE or Egb 761) exerts a beneficial effect against cisplatin-induced renal failure in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The first group (control) received orally 1 mL/kg/day of 0.9% saline by an oral carrier vehicle on days 1 to 10. The second group was injected with 7 mg/kg cisplatin intraperitoneally (i.p.) on the fourth day, once only. The third group (vit E + cisplatin) was administered 10 mg/kg/day i.p. vit E on 1 to 10 days with one dose of i.p. cisplatin (7 mg/kg) injection on the fourth day. The fourth group (GBE + cisplatin) was given GBE orally at 100 mg/mL/kg started on the first day up to the tenth day with one dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg) injection on the fourth day.
Cisplatin was found to lead a statistically significant increase in plasma BUN and creatinine levels, as well as urine micro total protein (MTP) levels, leading to acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Renal xanthine oxidase (XO) activities increased in all groups (statistically significant in cisplatin + GBE-treated rats; P < 0.001). Adenosine deaminase (AD) activities were increased in cisplatin-treated rats, and decreased in cisplatin + GBE-treated (P < 0.041) and cisplatin + vit E-treated (P < 0.005) rats, compared to controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were increased in the kidney tissue of cisplatin-treated rats. Vit E improved plasma creatinine and urine MTP levels, together with tissue MDA, NO levels, and MPO activities. But GBE had no statistically significant effect on those parameters.
These results indicate that increased XO, AD and MPO activities, as well as MDA and NO levels play a critical role in cisplatin nephrotoxicity. GBE has been shown to protect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.