It is still unclear whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with risk factors for coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether eradication of H. pylori infection affects serum lipid levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Seventy-eight patients who had H. pylori antigen positivity in their stools were enrolled. Clarithromycin, 1 g/day, amoxicillin, 2 g/day, and omeprazole, 40 mg/day, were given for 14 days. Serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), and CRP were measured at baseline and 8 weeks after therapy. According to H. pylori stool antigen study after 8 weeks, individuals in whom H. pylori was eradicated were recruited as group A and those in whom H. pylori was not eradicated formed group B. Group A comprised 57 patients, and group B 21 patients. Patients in group A comprised 32 women and 25 men and their ages ranged from 35 to 59 years. Patients in group B included 13 women and 8 men, aged 32-61 years. No significant difference in LDL, TC, or TG serum levels were found between group A and group B. Although CRP and HDL serum levels were found to be the same before and after treatment in group B, CRP levels were found to decrease and HDL levels to increase significantly in group A (P < 0.05). We conclude that H. pylori infection may affect lipid metabolism in a way that could increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Thus H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease.