Background: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of paclitaxel plus doxorubicin as a second-line treatment in patients with urothelial carcinoma, who had not responded to a prior platinum plus gemcitabine combination. Patients and Methods: All patients received intravenous infusions of paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)/h) and doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2)/30 min) on day 1. Chemotherapy courses were repeated every 21 days. Results: The median follow-up duration was 13.5 months (range 2.8-22.4 months). Complete and partial responses were observed in 2 (5.6%) and 10 (27.8%) patients, respectively. Median overall survival was 8.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.2-11.6). Median time to progression was 3.8 months (95% CI: 2.7-4.8). The most common hematologic toxicities were neutropenia (n = 21, 58.3%), thrombocytopenia (n = 10, 27.8%), and anemia (n = 9, 25%). The most common non-hematologic toxicities consisted of fatigue (n = 15, 41.7%), nausea/vomiting (n = 13, 36.1%), peripheral neuropathy (n = 11, 30.6%), and mucositis (n = 6, 16.7%). Dose reductions by 25-35% were performed in 6 (16.7%) patients because of grade 3/4 toxicity. Anthracycline-related heart failure did not occur. Conclusion: 3-weekly courses of cyclic paclitaxel plus doxorubicin were found to be effective and tolerable in patients with urothelial carcinoma, who had not responded to prior platinum- and gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.