Aim. Dyslipidemia is common among patients with end-stage renal disease, whether treated by hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, there are not enough data about the effect of dialysis type on serum lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], apolipoprotein (a) [Apo(a)], apolipoprotein (b) [Apo(b)], and lipid levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dialysis type on serum lipid levels. Materials and Methods. This study enrolled 40 HD patients (20 men and 20 women, aged 48.1 +/- 17.6 years) and 69 PD patients (35 men and 34 women, aged 45.2 +/- 16.3 years). Serum lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), Apo(a), Apo(b), and Lp(a) were determined in HD and PD patients. Patients who have used statins within the last six months were not included in the study. Results. No significant differences in TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, Apo(a), Apo(b), or Lp(a) serum levels were found between HD and PD patients. Serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, Apo(a), Apo(b), and Lp(a) in HD and PD patients were 172.2 +/- 42.7 (mg/dL) vs. 181.0 +/- 53.0 (mg/dL), 97.2 +/- 36.2 (mg/dL) vs. 101.4 +/- 33.6 (mg/dL), 45.3 +/- 11.9 (mg/dL) vs. 41.4 +/- 11.1 (mg/dL), 144.7 +/- 71.8 (mg/dL) vs. 173.0 +/- 76.8 (mg/dL), 1.2 +/- 0.5 (g/L) vs. 1.0 +/- 0.2 (g/L), 0.9 +/- 0.3 (g/L) vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 (g/L), and 43.1 +/- 40.6 (mg/dL) vs. 46.0 +/- 42.7 (mg/dL), respectively. Conclusion. The results of this study show that the maintenance CAPD treatment is associated with more pronounced alterations of the lipoproteins and lipid metabolism than those observed during HD treatment.