in: ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN THE 21st CENTURY: CHANGING IDENTITIES, AGENCIES, AND MINDSETS, Dr. Dilek Uygun Gökmen,aslı yılmaz ercan,dr. ışıl ruacan silahtaroğlu, Editor, marmara üniversitesi yayınları, İstanbul, pp.178-196, 2020
Speaking has been one of the most difficult skills to be assessed because the cognition of the raters is
complex and uncontrollable as it takes place in raters’ minds. The study investigates what goes on in
raters’ minds during the assessment of speaking performance and potential effects of different task
types on raters. Six non-native instructors of EFL were asked to score performances of six examinees
on three different oral tasks. Then, the raters produced retrospective verbal reports on how they
rated the examinees’ performances. The findings revealed that the raters not only attended to the
criteria given in the rating scales but they also brought their own criteria into the assessment process.
Those non-rubric criteria for each task type included different aspects of assessment such as rater,
examinee or task accomplishment. The raters had some concerns over the picture description task
while favoring the extended monologue and question and answer task.