Post-traumatic embitterment symptoms among woman victims of February 28th post-modern coup of Turkey after two decades: A comparative cross-sectional study

Görmez A., Elbay R., Karatepe H. T.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0020764020946346
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ASSIA, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, CINAHL, EMBASE, Index Islamicus, MEDLINE, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo, Public Affairs Index, Social services abstracts, Sociological abstracts
  • Keywords: Embitterment, February 28th coup, hijab ban, PTED, Turkey, SELF-RATING SCALE, STRESS-DISORDER


Background: Post-traumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) is characterized by embitterment reaction to stressful life events, which are seen as unjust and as a violation of basic beliefs. On 28 February 1997, a so-called post-modern coup took place in Turkey, declaring a ban on hijab which had a significant impact on women's lives by eliminating them from public sphere if they were to wear hijab. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of PTED symptoms among woman victims of the coup after two decades, and to investigate its correlations. Embitterment reaction was also examined in woman victims of 1999 earthquakes of Turkey, and the findings were compared. Method: We used PTED, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Brief Resilience Scale, and a purpose-designed socio-demographic form. Results: Out of eligible 101 hijab ban victims responded, substantial proportion of them (48%) were suffering from chronic embitterment as well as experiencing symptoms of anxiety (37.6%) and depression (26.8%) of moderate-to-severe intensity. There was no difference in the levels of anxiety, depression and resilience between the victims of the coup and earthquake (N= 20), but hijab ban victims were significantly more likely to present with PTED symptoms (p < .05). Women who had family support were more resilient with less likelihood of PTED (p < .05). Conclusion: This study provides some important insights into psychopathology of PTED as well as suggesting that it is more likely to manifest in people whose suffering is brought upon by fellow human beings.