Along with amazing technological advances, the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century introduced new sources of pollution. By the mid-20th century, the effects of these changes were beginning to be felt around the world. Among these changes, health problems due to environmental air pollution are increasingly recognized. At the beginning, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases were emphasized. However, accumulated data indicate that every organ system in the body may be involved, and the kidney is no exception. Although research on air pollution and kidney damage is recent, there is now scientific evidence that air pollution harms the kidney. In this holistic review, we have summarized the epidemiology, disease states and mechanisms of air pollution and kidney damage.