Objectives Puberphonia or mutational falsetto (MF) is seen more in males, and hormonal changes are considered to be among the aetiological causes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the molecules [G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1), aromatase, 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels] related to receptors and pathways in patients with MF. Methods The study included 30 MF patients and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. Voice recordings were made of the MF patients and acoustic analyses were applied. The serum GPER-1, aromatase, 17 beta-HSD, cAMP levels and TSH, estradiol, prolactin, progesterone, and testosterone levels were evaluated in venous blood samples. Results In the MF patients, the GPER-1 level determined of mean 3.68 (1.95-4.26) pg/ml, 17 beta dehydrogenase of 5.25 (2.73-6.77) ng/ml, and cAMP of 24.62 (11.62-30.35) ng/ml were statistically signficantly higher than those of the control group (p = 0.008, p = 0.002, p = 0.003, respectively). The aromatase level in the MF patients was found to be 3.48 (2.01-4.91) and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.067). Conclusion The GPER-1, 17 beta-HSD, and cAMP levels were found to be higher in the MF patients than in the control group, suggesting that they could be of importance in the diagnosis and treatment of MF.