Objective: The evolution of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (NOACs) has changed the horizon of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF). All 4 NOACs have been tested against dose-adjusted warfarin in well-designed, pivotal, phase III, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and were approved by regulatory authorities for an SPAF indication. However, as traditional RCTs, these trials have important weaknesses, largely related to their complex structure and patient participation, which was limited by strict inclusion and extensive exclusion criteria. In the real world, however, clinicians are often faced with complex, multimorbid patients who are underrepresented in these RCTs. This article is based on a meeting report authored by 12 scientists studying atrial fibrillation (AF) in diverse ways who discussed the management of challenging AF cases that are underrepresented in pivotal NOAC trials.