Objective This study aimed to evaluate the radiomorphometric indexes and fractal dimension (FD) on dental panoramic radiography (DPR) of Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. Methods In 59 TM patients and in 59 healthy control subjects, mandibular cortical index (MCI), mandibular cortical width (MCW), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), and FD of four different regions (FD1-4) were evaluated and compared using DPRs. Results The distribution of MCI in TM patients was similar to control subjects (p > 0.05). The mean MCW was significantly lower in TM patients (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in PMI between TM patients and control subjects. The mean of FD measured in the supracortical area above the angle of mandible (FD2), in the anterior to the mental foramen (FD4) and mean FD of four different regions was significantly lower in TM patients (p = 0.003, p = 0.001, and p = 0.014, respectively). Conclusions The radiomorphometric indices and fractal dimensions evaluated in the panoramic radiograph are capable of identifying thalassemia patients' jaw bone, and the results of DPR scanning can be used to refer these patients to appropriate medical investigation.