The Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of Smartphone Impact Scale

BİRİNCİ T., Van Der Veer P., MUTLU C., Mutlu E. K.

EVALUATION & THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/01632787221097703
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ASSIA, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EBSCO Education Source, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Public Affairs Index
  • Keywords: smartphone, addiction, validity, reliability, social media, ADDICTION


The Smartphone Impact Scale (SIS) was originally developed in English to determine the cognitive, affective, social, and behavioral impacts of smartphones. This study aimed to translate and cross-culturally adapt the SIS instrument into Turkish and investigate its psychometric properties. Two hundred and sixty-four young and middle-aged adults (186 females) with a mean age of 36.24 years (SD = 14.93; range, 18-65 years) were included. For cross-cultural adaptation, two bi-lingual translators used the back-translation procedure. Within a 5-to-7-day period after the first assessment, the participants completed the Turkish version of SIS (SIS-T) to evaluate test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha (alpha) was used to assess internal consistency. The correlation between the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS-T) and the Nottingham Health Profile was determined to check the validity. The SIS-T had a high-level internal consistency (alpha = 0.86) and test-retest reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.56 to 0.89 for subscales). The SIS-T subscales were correlated with the SAS-T (r = 0.31 to 0.66, p < 0.01), indicating a good concurrent validity. The results show that the SIS-T is semantically and linguistically adequate to determine smartphones' cognitive, affective, social, and behavioral impacts on young and middle-aged adults. Good internal validity and test-retest reliability of the SIS-T were defined to evaluate the impacts of smartphones among Turkish-speaking young and middle-aged adults.