Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is called "the great imitator," because it can mimic almost all types of dermatoses. This similarity may sometimes lead to misdiagnosis, resulting in inappropriate treatment and morbidities. Atypical forms occur due to the interaction between parasitic factors and the host immune response. Secondary infection or mistreatment of CL can also alter the natural course, resulting in bizarre and misdiagnosed cases. Atypical leishmaniasis should be considered in longstanding and painless lesions that may simulate erysipelas, dermatitis, verruca, herpes zoster, paronychia, and sporotrichosis. Less commonly, sarcoidosis, deep mycosis, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphoma, or pseudolymphomalilce lesions may need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. A high index of suspicion is required to consider a diagnosis of CL, especially in nonendemic or newly endemic regions. Smear, histopathologic examination, culture, and polymerase chain reaction serve as important tools to differentiate CL from its clinical and histologic look-alikes. CL is discussed from various perspectives, with emphasis on CL and its broad differential diagnosis. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.