in: Avars, Bulgars and Magyars on the Middle and Lower Danube, Doncheva-Petkova L.,Balogh Cs.,Türk A., Editor, Archaeolingua Foundation, Budapest, pp.37-55, 2014
In the archaeological record of the early medieval Carpathian Basin, there is a relatively small group of cast and ajouré mounts (and their pressed imitations) with a characteristic geometric decoration recalling human faces, which are therefore generally referred to as „masque-type mounts”. The scarcity of the masque-type mounts in the Carpathian Basin can be illustrated by the following facts: their catalogue contains only 36 findplaces and 45 find contexts altogether.
I suggest two criteria for their classification: the first one is based on technological the other one on formal characteristics. In the Carpathian Basin masque-type mounts often occur sporadically, at any case there are no complete sets surviving and they were most probably used differently from their counterparts in the Russian steppe. The functional aspect has therefore been neglected in the classification.