To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a diabetic population in Turkey using a non-mydriatic fundus camera. Patients presenting to our diabetes screening center were evaluated by fundus photography using a non-mydriatic fundus camera. Patients' age at presentation, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and treatments used for diabetes were recorded. The data of 1797 female (55%) and 1470 male (45%) diabetes patients (total 3267) were analyzed. The prevalence of DR was 28.6%. DR stage was mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR) in 345 patients (12.9%), moderate NPDR in 300 (11.2%), severe NPDR in 108 (4%), and proliferative DR (PDR) in 12 patients (0.4%). Diabetic macular edema (DME) was detected 98 patients (3.7%). Fundus pictures were inadequate for assessment in 18% of cases (588 patient). Advanced age, longer diabetes duration, higher HbA1c level, and being treated for diabetes were found as risk factors for DR. In this study, we used a non-mydriatic fundus camera to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in a Turkish population. In developing countries, the non-mydriatic fundus camera may be an appropriate way to detect DR in the early stages before it progresses to the proliferative stage.