Understanding the variables that affect the use of textbooks are important for the development of eligible and preferable resources. In this research, the frequency of textbook usage in face-to-face and distance education was examined according to grade level, professional experience of teachers, and residential area of the schools in which teachers work. The sample of the study consists of 287 middle school mathematics teachers working in different state schools. Data was obtained through an online survey. This study showed that the frequency of textbook usage decreased as the grade level increased, and this decrease occurred both in face-to-face and distance education. However, it has been concluded that the frequency of textbook usage varies in both learning environments according to teaching experience, and that change is statistically significant. In face-to-face classrooms, it was determined that the location of the school was a determining factor in terms of the frequency of textbook usage, whereas, in distance education, the frequency of textbook usage did not statistically significantly differ according to school location. The rest of the findings are discussed in terms of teachers' experiences and attitudes.