Previous retrospective studies showed high periprocedure mentality rate and poor outcome after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) among renal dialysis patients. The purpose of this study was to compare mortality and clinical event rates in renal dialysis patients after PTCA or CABG, We identified 252 patients from the Emery Cardiovascular Database who were on dialysis and who received PTCA (122 patients) or CABG (130 patients) at Emery University Hospital and Crawford W, Long Hospital between March 1987 and December 1997, Baseline and angiographic characteristics, in-hospital, and 1-year outcome were compared between the 2 groups. Left main disease and 3-vessel coronary artery disease were significantly more common in the CABG group. There was a higher periprocedure and in-hospital mortality in the CABG group (6.9% vs 1.6%, p = 0.04), Patients in the PTCA group underwent repeat revascularization 11 times more frequently within 1 year (22% vs 2%). At 1 year, mortality was 23% in the PTCA group and 27% in the CABG group, with no statistical difference between the 2 groups. This nonrandomized comparison reveals that PTCA and CABG can be performed in selected renal dialysis patients with an acceptable in-hospital major complication rate; however, 1-year mortality remains high in dialysis patients after coronary revascularization. Therefore, attempts at improving outcome in dialysis patients should focus on the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease before they require coronary revascularization, (C)2000 by Excerpta Medico, Inc.