Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severely disabling psychiatric disease characterized by impairments in communication and social skills. Although efforts have been made to explore the etiology of ASD, its pathophysiology remains unclear. This issue is rendered more challenging by confounding data about the effects of vaccination on disease etiology. In this study, therefore, we investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of maternal tetanus toxoid administration on rat offspring. We hypothesized that the vaccine affects the sociability and preference for social novelty of rat offspring as well as the production of immunological and neurotrophic factors, including tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-alpha), neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), neuron growth factor (NGF), and oxytocin.